The devastation of DEP was observed in 20 min when adding at least 20 millimeters H2O2 while the complete mineralization of DEP was detected at initial H2O2 concentrations of 20 and 30 millimeter after 40 min. DEP abatement merely appeared to steadily increase with increasing H2O2 sum from 5 to 40 millimeter.
Life history can influence population genetic variation by altering patterns of gamete union and dispersal. Sea stars from the family Asterinidae have evolved similar life histories multiple times in parallel including planktonic feeding larvae, planktonic non-feeding larvae, development in benthic egg masses, and viviparity.
In this thesis I first examine the population genetic structure of a widespread planktotrophic asterinid sea star from the East Pacific Patiria miniata. I use mitochondrial sequence markers to determine whether extrinsic factors such as vicariance or intrinsic properties such as dispersal mode are driving patterns of population genetic variation in this species.
I then examine patterns of population genetic variation among eight additional asterinid species from Australia using a mixed species pool of genomic microsatellite markers. I use these microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic variation within groups of brooded offspring associated with the unusual life histories of two live bearing asterinids from the genus Parvulastra.
Lastly, I examine the evolution of life history among the asterinids and use the phylogenetic relationships among species to examine the correlation between life history and population genetic structure in this group. Ultimately, I find that the degree to which intrinsic life history properties of asterinids and extrinsic factors contribute to population genetic variation varies among species and among clades.
Using microsatellite markers I find that in general between-population genetic variation is high in benthic species benthic egg laying and live bearing relative to species with planktonic larvae and that genetic variation within populations is lower in benthic species relative to planktonic species.
Lastly, I find that the degree to which phylogeny constrains the coevolution of population genetic structure and life history varies among life history characters and among-population genetic parameters.
This thesis suggests that in many cases variation in life histories among a closely related group of marine species can predict patterns of population genetic variation. However, extrinsic factors can in some cases, act with or override life history characteristics in driving patterns of population genetic variation.Biological Impacts of the Chemical Deet Essay - Biological Impacts of the Chemical Deet This research paper examines the chemical Deet.
This chemical was developed by the United States Army to combat swarms of parasitic insects that can be prolific in and around military institutions, and on the battlefield.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of DEET on the ability of the dinoflagellates to emit light. Winning Essays. River Crossings: Effects on Wildlife in and Around the Fort River; Biological Bulletin (): Abstract.
Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in .
These parameters include environmental control strategy, which can eliminate vector breeding with improved design or operation of water resources projects and the use of biological control.
Its purpose is also to kill vector larvae without impacts of the chemical use on the environment. Conventional effluent intervention is composed of a intervention train, including physical, chemical, and biological operations, in order to take a broad scope of pollutants, such as atoms, organic affairs and pathogens from effluent.
that have biological activity and can cause repellent or insecticidal effects without negative impacts on human safety and the environment. Some of the more common chemicals that .