Durkheim is perhaps most renowned for his publications of controversial monographs, which conveyed the methods and subjects of, in his time the new science of sociology. Durkheim is also well known for the establishment of social theory, which can view sociological subjects in an empirical manner like natural sciences. Durkheim was seen as a positivist, he believed that human society follows laws the same as how science does using empirical evidence and testing.
In other words, they continue to be good, law-abiding citizens. Faced with strain, some poor people continue to value economic success but come up with new means of achieving it.
They rob people or banks, commit fraud, or use other illegal means of acquiring money or property. Merton calls this adaptation innovation. Other poor people continue to work at a job without much hope of greatly improving their lot in life. They go to work day after day as a habit. Merton calls this third adaptation ritualism.
This adaptation does not involve deviant behavior but is a logical response to the strain poor people experience. Their response to the strain they feel is to reject both the goal of economic success and the means of working.
Here poor people not only reject the goal of success and the means of working but work actively to bring about a new society with a new value system.
These people are the radicals and revolutionaries of their time. Because Merton developed his strain theory in the aftermath of the Great Depression, in which the labor and socialist movements had been quite active, it is not surprising that he thought of rebellion as a logical adaptation of the poor to their lack of economic success.
Perhaps most important, it overlooks deviance such as fraud by the middle and upper classes and also fails to explain murder, rape, and other crimes that usually are not done for economic reasons. It also does not explain why some poor people choose one adaptation over another.
Whereas Merton stressed that the poor have differential access to legitimate means workingCloward and Ohlin stressed that they have differential access to illegitimate means. For example, some live in neighborhoods where organized crime is dominant and will get involved in such crime; others live in neighborhoods rampant with drug use and will start using drugs themselves.
In a more recent formulation, two sociologists, Steven F. A romantic relationship may end, a family member may die, or students may be taunted or bullied at school. Repeated strain-inducing incidents such as these produce anger, frustration, and other negative emotions, and these emotions in turn prompt delinquency and drug use.
Deviant Subcultures Some sociologists stress that poverty and other community conditions give rise to certain subcultures through which adolescents acquire values that promote deviant behavior.
One of the first to make this point was Albert K. Cohenwhose status frustration theory says that lower-class boys do poorly in school because schools emphasize middle-class values. School failure reduces their status and self-esteem, which the boys try to counter by joining juvenile gangs.
In these groups, a different value system prevails, and boys can regain status and self-esteem by engaging in delinquency. Cohen had nothing to say about girls, as he assumed they cared little about how well they did in school, placing more importance on marriage and family instead, and hence would remain nondelinquent even if they did not do well.
Scholars later criticized his disregard for girls and assumptions about them. Another sociologist, Walter Millersaid poor boys become delinquent because they live amid a lower-class subculture that includes several focal concernsor values, that help lead to delinquency.
These focal concerns include a taste for trouble, toughness, cleverness, and excitement. If boys grow up in a subculture with these values, they are more likely to break the law. Their deviance is a result of their socialization. A very popular subcultural explanation is the so-called subculture of violence thesis, first advanced by Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti In some inner-city areas, they said, a subculture of violence promotes a violent response to insults and other problems, which people in middle-class areas would probably ignore.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Critically evaluate Durkheim’s sociological approach to the analysis of suicide Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist, is often acclaimed as being one of the .
Critically Evaluate Durkheim's Sociological Approach to the Analysis of Suicide Words | 11 Pages. Critically evaluate Durkheim’s sociological approach to the analysis of suicide Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist, is often acclaimed as being one of the key pioneers of the academic discipline, sociology.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Durkheim () who devoted himself to the scientific study of sociology is widely regarded as a pioneer in French sociology.
It is known that Emile Durkheim inherits some of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer’s ideas and developed a systematic sociology both in theory and methodology (Moñivas, , p. 18). Durkheim’s concern about religion lay in the fact that it was one of the main agencies of solidarity and morality in society and was therefore parts of the central problem of .
ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the most important rules of sociological methods according to Durkheim are as follows: “Rules of Sociological Methods” of Durkheim was published in the year The methodological framework for all of his subsequent work was developed in his “The Rules of sociological methods.” He has successfully .